Information on Tetanus

Tetanus is a potentially fatal disease: it acts very quickly and often kills before the body’s natural primary response can take place. There are about 1million cases of tetanus a year with between 300,000-500,000deaths. It is a global problem because tetanus spores, which cause the infection, are everywhere. However, due to vaccination programmes, tetanus is rare in the UK with only about 10 cases a year; the main problems are encountered in developing countries where vaccines may be too expensive and equipment may not be properly sterilised.

Tetanus is caused by gram positive, obligate anaerobic bacteria: Clostridium tetani which affects skeletal muscles.”Gram positive” means that the bacteria has a thick cell wall, while “obligate anaerobe” means that the bacteria can’t survive in the presence of oxygen and survive using anaerobic respiration (without oxygen). The bacteria releases a neurotoxin called tetanospasmin which binds irreversibly to neurones; these are nerve cells that carry waves of electrical activity, known as nerve impulses. When the toxin binds to the neurone it prevents the inhibition of the motor reflex response to sensory stimuli. The motor reflex response is a rapid response to a stimulus, for example the knee jerk is a motor reflex response to tapping a specific nerve, and in this case it prevents us from falling over. However the toxin stops the nerve from suppressing the movement once the stimuli has gone so the movement continues as a muscle spasm which is characteristic of tetanus.


Bacterium Clostridium tetani.
Contamination of a puncture wound, e.g.: a piercing.
Ear infections as bacteria may enter through ear.
Using unsterile equipment in surgery or other similarly invasive procedures such as tattooing and body piercing.
Tetanus is associated with rust which is a little misleading. You are not infected by the rust itself it’s just that rust is a rough surface which makes a very good habitat for the endospores of C.tetani. Therefore if you suffer a puncture wound from a rusty object such as a nail, endospores might be delivered into the wound and then you become infected. Endospores are non-metabolising structures that metabolise and cause infection once they are in an adequate environment. Since this bacterium is an obligate anaerobe it can’t live in the presence of oxygen, but a puncture wound is a good environment because it is a low oxygen environment.

The disease is common in areas with hot, damp climates that have soil rich in organic matter, or places where soil is treated with manure. This is because the spores of C.tetani are widely distributed in the intestines of animals such as horses, rats, sheep, cattle, dogs and chickens, and therefore are present in manure. Spores can also be found on skin surfaces and in contaminated heroin.

The incubation period for tetanus is usually between 3 and 21 days, so it may be a while before you are aware that you are infected, especially if the site of contamination was a small cut that you were hardly aware of, such as a thorn prick. The further from the central nervous system the contaminated wound is the longer the incubation period. However, the shorter the incubation period the higher the chance of death. Normally symptoms are present after 8 days and they last between 4-6weeks.


Firstly muscle spasms occur near the wound
Muscle spasm spread to the jaw making it difficult to swallow or open your mouth, hence the name lockjaw
Muscle spasms spread to the face, neck, chest, stomach wall, arms and legs.
Sensitivity to touch
High fever
Sore throat
Rapid heart beat
General tiredness and weakness
Can’t pass urine
Difficulty with breathing due to chest muscle spasms and lockjaw
Bleeding into the bowels
Direct causes of death include:
Blood poisoning
Cardiac arrest (heart attack)
Kidney failure
Development of pneumonia and other infections
Fractures of long bones due to severe muscle contractions
Spinal compression fractures
Breathing problems
People who are most at risk are:
Over 60s as the vaccine was introduced in the 1960s so they may not be properly immunised
People who aren’t immunised or have not had the full vaccination course (tetanus occurs almost exclusively in people who are unvaccinated or inadequately immunised.)
Those who live in poverty where vaccines may not be available or medical treatment is not adequate and equipment isn’t properly sterilised.
Intravenous drug users.
There are four different types of tetanus:
Local Tetanus. This is a persistent contraction of the muscles in the same areas as the infected wound. This form is generally mild, but also uncommon.
Cephalic Tetanus. This is a rare form which involves cranial nerves especially in the facial area affecting expressions, breathing and swallowing. It can affect adults with head injuries or children with ear infections as the bacteria enter through the ear.
Generalised Tetanus. This is the most common form accounting for about 80% of cases. The first sign is lockjaw (trismus) and facial spasms (risus sadonicus) followed by a stiff neck, difficulty in swallowing and rigidity in the pectoral and calf muscles. Spasms occur frequently and last several minutes shaping the body into a characteristic posture of an arched and rigid back called opisthotonos. The spasms last for 3-4 weeks and it can take months for a complete recovery.
Neonatal Tetanus. This is generalised tetanus that occurs in newborn babies. They are infected because they haven’t obtained passive immunity from their mother because she wasn’t immunised. It occurs through the infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, especially if it is cut by unsterilised equipment. Also in some countries it is traditional to put manure on the umbilical stump which can lead to infection. In developing countries this form is responsible for 14% of neonatal deaths but it is rare in developed countries.
You can do blood tests for tetanus but it takes a number of weeks for the body’s antibodies to appear in the blood and since tetanus can act quite quickly waiting for blood test results takes too long; a diagnosis is often made on clinical basis. This can usually be diagnosed by the characteristic lockjaw and prolonged muscle contractions of skeletal muscle fibres. Also a spatula test can be done which involves touching the pharynx, which is at the back of the mouth, with a soft-tipped, sterile instrument and observing the results. If there is an involuntary contraction of the jaw, making the person bite down on the spatula then the test is positive and the person has tetanus. A negative result would be a normal gag reflex reaction as the person tries to repel the foreign object from their mouth.


If you suspect that you might be at risk to tetanus you should seek medical help immediately. The wound should be washed clean to remove any dirt and foreign particles from the wound. If it is a particularly dirty or severe wound then dead and infected tissue may be removed by surgery debridement (this involves cutting away the dead tissue).

In mild cases:

Antibiotics such as metronidazole can be prescribed to fight the anaerobic bacteria. It reduces the number of bacteria present but it has no effect on the toxin that the bacteria produce. If metronidazole isn’t available penicillin may be prescribed but it is not as effective. If you aren’t sure when you had your last tetanus vaccine or have not had a complete course of immunisation then you may be given a booster shot, however this will not prevent potentially fatal cases of tetanus as it takes up to 2 weeks to develop tetanus antibodies to fight the bacteria. Diazepam, also known as valium, can be given as a muscle relaxant.

Passive immunisation with anti-tetanospasmin immunoglobulin is vital. Immunoglobulins are antibodies and form part of the body’s immune response. In this case the immunoglobulin used is an antitoxin which means it blocks the toxins released by bacteria. The antibodies are taken from blood donors who have recently been vaccinated against tetanus and inserted into a vein or muscle (intravenously or intramuscular injections). These provide immediate protection, however they are only temporary because it is a form of artificial passive immunity and the body’s own immune cells haven’t produced the antibodies so memory cells aren’t made therefore if there is a second exposure then the body will still have to make its own antibodies which take time. Also the body regards the donated antibodies as foreign and they are removed from the circulation and destroyed in the liver and spleen.

In severe cases:

This must be treated in an intensive care unit in hospital. Injecting immunoglobulins is important as it increases clinical improvement from 4 to 35%. Maintaining an open airway is vital; in some cases a tracheostomy is performed which involves creating a hole in the neck through to the windpipe and inserting a tube in to allow you to keep breathing freely although your mouth or throat may be blocked higher up, you may be supported on mechanical ventilation for 3-4weeks. In very severe cases the patient may have to be paralysed and supported on mechanical ventilation.

Magnesium can be given as intravenous injection as this prevents muscle spasms, diazepam may also be given as it is a muscle relaxant.

Proper nutrition is required: 3500-4000 calories are needed every day with at least 150g of protein a day. The amount must be so high because of the increased metabolic strain caused valium 10mg price by the increased muscle activity of spasms. It can often be given in liquid form through tubes directly into the stomach or through a drip into a vein.


The best prevention against tetanus is proper immunisation as tetanus occurs almost exclusively in people who are unvaccinated or inadequately immunised. In the UK the vaccination is included in children’s vaccination programmes and is part of the combined diphtheria/tetanus/polio/haemophilus influenza b vaccine. For adults and teenagers it is included in the tetanus/diphtheria/polio vaccine. The vaccination course involves 5 doses of vaccinations: the primary course is given as 3 separate doses each a month apart, normally it is given to babies, starting when they are two months old, but it can be given to adults as well. In children the fourth dose is given three years after their primary course, in adults it is administered ten years after the primary course. Finally the fifth dose is given ten years after the fourth. The primary course provides protection for a number of years while the fourth and fifth doses maintain this protection and should last a life-time. Vaccinations inject a small amount of dead or harmless bacteria into the blood, which the body recognises as foreign. The body’s immune system then produces antibodies to destroy these foreign particles and at the same time memory cells are made so that if there is a second exposure (if you actually were infected by tetanus) your immune response would be much quicker and more effective. After the vaccine it is normal to feel slightly unwell with symptoms including mild headache, aching muscles and mild fever which last a few days. You should not have the vaccine if you already have an illness causing a fever or if your last tetanus vaccination caused a severe reaction although this is very rare. It is safe to have the vaccine if you are pregnant or breast feeding.

To receive advice and help for your situation call Free phone 0800 652 4321 or 01642 252828. Alternatively, visit the website at and complete the online claim form. Macks Solicitors will be happy to give you free expert advice on making a compensation claim for the extra expenses and for your emotional and physical injuries. Making a claim through Macks Solicitors will not cost you anything and you will get to keep 100% of any compensation you are awarded.

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ด้วยการเพิ่มใหม่ล่าสุดในเกม Mafia Wars ที่คุณชื่นชอบคุณอาจสงสัยว่าคุณจะเล่น Mafia Wars ได้อย่างไรเกี่ยวกับฟังก์ชั่นใหม่ๆรวมถึงงานต่างๆข่าวที่น่าอัศจรรย์คือการค้นหาคู่มือเกม Mafia wars เพื่อช่วยเหลือคุณเป็นเรื่องง่ายมากในความเป็นจริงบางทีคุณอาจอยากรู้ว่าคุณจะเก็บ Slots Collection ใหม่ล่าสุดที่สามารถซื้อเข้าเกมได้อย่างไรอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพนี่คือคำแนะนำของคุณสำหรับคอลเลกชั่นใหม่นี้วิธีที่คุณสามารถค้นหาสิ่งต่างๆพร้อมกับการดูสิ่งที่คุณจะได้รับเมื่อใดก็ตามที่คุณเก็บรวบรวม

ในการเริ่มต้นคุณต้องตรวจสอบงานพิเศษตีหนูสิ่งนี้ก็คือบางสิ่งที่อยู่ในคอลเลกชันสล็อตนั้นมีให้โดยการทำงานนี้โดยเฉพาะงานตีหนูเป็นเหตุการณ์ที่มีเวลาxoจำกัดซึ่งช่วยให้คุณทำงานได้หลายอย่างคุณจะพบกับงานที่ใช้เวลา 5 นาทีงานแปดชั่วโมงและงานที่ใช้เวลายี่สิบสี่ชั่วโมงในการทำงานให้เสร็จของรางวัลพิเศษจะลดลงทุกครั้งที่คุณทำภารกิจเหล่านี้รวมถึงผลิตภัณฑ์รวบรวมหลายอย่างที่คุณน่าจะต้องการ

เมื่อใดก็ตามที่คุณทำฟังก์ชั่น Whack the Rat ใน Mafia Wars เสร็จและหากคุณทำ Slots Collection เสร็จสมบูรณ์คุณก็จะได้รับความสำเร็จที่เฉพาะเจาะจงซึ่งถือว่าเป็นความสำเร็จ”What Happens within Vegas”อย่างไรก็ตามโปรดทราบว่าคุณต้องทำคอลเลคชันให้เสร็จและทำงานให้เสร็จเพื่อที่จะได้รับรางวัลพิเศษนี้

ดังนั้นสิ่งที่คุณน่าจะมีสำหรับคอลเลคชั่นสล็อตเพื่อที่คุณจะสามารถทำให้มันถูกทำลายได้? คุณจะพบว่าคุณจะได้รับ 7 สิ่งที่แตกต่างกันซึ่งคุณน่าจะต้องรวบรวมเพื่อเก็บรวบรวมคุณต้องการระฆังเสรีภาพลูกพลัมส้มโชคดีเจ็ดเชอร์รี่มะนาวและแถบสามในกรณีที่คุณต้องการทราบว่าคุณสามารถเล่น Mafia Wars ได้อย่างไรเพื่อรับการรวบรวมนี้คุณจะพบว่าคุณต้องมีสิ่งเหล่านี้อย่างน้อยหนึ่งในทุกสิ่งเหล่านี้เมื่อสามารถเก็บของสะสมได้เพื่อรับสิ่งพิเศษพิเศษ


Occupational Health: Core Areas of Knowledge and Competence, Part 1

It is not possible to describe a highly complex and dynamic process such as occupational health nursing simply in terms of core activities or tasks. Occupational Health Nurse (OHA) are constantly learning new skills, adapting current practices to meet new needs and developing new approaches to solving problems and therefore their practice is not static but is constantly improving based upon a core range of skills.

However, within this limitation it is possible to describe those core areas of knowledge and competence that occupational health nurses use. The following list is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to give an indication of the wide range of competencies that occupational health nurses demonstrate in practice.

The Clinician

Primary prevention

The OHA is skilled in primary prevention of injury or disease. The nurse may identify the need for, assess and plan interventions to, for example modify working environments, systems of work or change working practices in order to reduce the risk of hazardous exposure. Occupational health nurses are skilled in considering factors, such as human behavior and habits in relation to actual working practices. The nurse can also collaborate in the identification, conception and correction of work factors, choice of individual protective equipment, prevention of industrial injuries and diseases, as well as providing advice in matters concerning protection of the environment. Because of the occupational health nurses close association with the workers, and knowledge and experience in the working environment, they are in a good position to identify early changes in working practices, identify workers concerns over health and safety, and by presenting these to management in an independent objective manner can be the catalyst for changes in the workplace that lead to primary prevention.

Emergency care

The OHA is a Registered Nurse with a great deal of clinical experience and expertise in dealing with sick or injured people. The nurse may, where such duties form part of their job, provide initial emergency care of workers injured at work prior to transfer of the injured worker to hospital or the arrival of the emergency services. In many instances, where hazardous conditions exist at work, or where the workplace is far removed from other health care facilities, this role will form a major part of an occupational health nurse’s job. Occupational health nurses employed in mines, on oil rigs, in the desert regions or in areas where the health care systems are not yet fully developed will be familiar with a wide range of emergency care techniques and may have developed additional skills in order to fulfill this role. For others, who are working in situations where the emergency services are on hand, they may simply provide an additional level of support beyond that provided by the industrial first aider.

Nursing diagnosis

Occupational health nurses are skilled in assessing client’s health care needs, establish a nursing diagnosis and formulating appropriate nursing care plans, in conjunction with the patient or client groups, to meet those needs. Nurses can then implement and evaluate nursing interventions designed to achieve the care objectives. The nurse has a prominent role in assessing the needs of individuals and groups, and has the ability to analyze, interpret, plan and implement strategies to achieve specific goals. By using the nursing process the nurse contributes to workplace health management and by so doing helps to improve the health of the working population at the shop floor level. Nursing diagnosis is a holistic concept that does not focus solely on the treatment of a specific disease, but rather considers the whole person and their health care needs in the broadest context. It is a health based model rather than a disease based model and nurses have the skills to apply this approach with the working populations they serve.

General Health advice and health assessment

The OHA will be able to give advice on a wide range of health issues, and particularly on their relationship to working ability, health and safety at work or where modifications to the job or working environment can be made to take account of the changing health status of employees.

In many respects employers are not solely concerned with only those conditions that are directly caused by work, but do want their occupational health staff to help address any health related problems that may arise that might influence the employees attendance or performance at work, and many employees appreciate this level of help being provided to them at the workplace because it is so convenient for them. In particular the development of health care services to men at work, younger populations and those from ethnic groups can be most effective in reaching these sometimes difficult to reach populations.

Research and the use of evidence based practice

In addition to utilizing information and knowledge produced by research in various fields to support activities that relate to the occupational health component of their role, occupational health nurses will also utilize fully research information available from many fields to help support the general health of the working population.


Occupational health policy, and practice development, implementation and evaluation

The specialist occupational health nurse may be involved, with senior management in the company, in developing the workplace health policy and strategy including aspects of occupational health, workplace health promotion and environmental health management. The OH nurse is in a good position to advise management on the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of workplace health management strategies and to participate fully in each of these stages. Possibility to perform that role will depend upon level of nurse education, skills and experience.

Occupational health assessment

OHA’s can play an essential role in health assessment for fitness to work, pre-employment or pre-placement examinations, periodic health examinations and individual health assessments for lifestyle risk factors.

Collaboration with occupational physician may be necessary in many instances, depending upon exiting legislation and accepted practice. The nurse can also play an important role in the workplace where informal requests for information, advice on health care matters and health related problems come to light. The nurse is able to observe the individual or group of workers in relation to exposure to a particular hazard and initiate appropriate targeted health assessment where necessary. These activities are often, but not exclusively, undertaken in conjunction with the medical adviser so that where problems are identified a safe system for onward referral exists.

Health surveillance

Where workers are exposed to a degree of residual risk of exposure and health surveillance is required by law the OHA will be involved in undertaking routine health surveillance procedures, periodic health assessment and in evaluating the results from such screening processes. The nurse will need a high degree healthspresso of clinical skill when undertaking health surveillance and maintain a high degree of alertness to any abnormal findings. Early referral to an occupational health physician or other appropriate specialist will be the responsibility of the occupational health nurse where any abnormality is detected. The nurse will be involved in supporting the worker throughout any further examination or investigation, and may help to monitor their health on return to work. Once alerted to the possibility of an adverse health effect the occupational health nurse is in a good position to co-ordinate efforts to re-evaluate working practices in order to help protect others who may be similarly affected.

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Print Options Available for Personalised T-Shirt Printing

Thousands of people have t-shirts printed each and every year. Companies choose this option to ensure their teams are wearing branded clothing to boost brand visibility and increase awareness. Private people choose personalised t-shirt printing to create their own unique designs, personalised gifts and even create a number of t -shirts for fun events, such as hen and stag parties. Sporting teams also make use of this service to ensure that the team all look the same when attending various events.

When you choose personalised t-shirt printing you will be given a number of different print options. Once you have your chosen t-shirt in mind, along with colour, you will need to choose the cheap personalised t-shirt printing solution that meets your requirements and budget.

The first option, the one most people are aware of, is screen printing. Screen printing is ideal for large scale orders and can help keep the price at an all time low. It is probably the cheapest option when it comes to personalised t-shirt printing. With this option the design is printed directly onto the t-shirt.

With screen printing, each colour is printed separately using specialised and high tech printing equipment. In addition to t-shirts, screen printing can also be used on other apparel, such as caps, hats, bags and more. It is a low cost solution which is durable and doesn’t have anything glued or embroidered onto the shirt, due to it being printed directly onto the design.

The downside is that it’s advisable to choose a light coloured t-shirt to ensure your design really stands out when choosing this cheap personalised t-shirt solution.

The next option is vinyl printing. Vinyl printing has become a popular choice as your design can be added to any colour t-shirt with ease. Instead of printing directly onto the material, this option prints the design onto a vinyl sheet, which is cut to size and then stuck onto the item.

Vinyl is a great solution for smaller orders and is strong and durable. In addition to this, the colours really stand out and are vibrant. They are printed and immediately ready to wear, making this a fast turnaround solution when you’re working to a very tight deadline.

Finally, there is embroidery. Embroidery is the perfect choice for companies who want a high quality design that is made to last. When it comes to cheap personalised t-shirts, embroidery is probably the most expensive option and is perfect for printing a logo or emblem onto a t-shirt, but not good for the larger designs. If you want to cover the front or back of the item with printing, then this is not the choice for you as you will be charged per thread.

Embroidery is a fantastic option for companies as it offers a three dimensional finish which is long lasting, hard wearing and stitched into place. This means that even with high volume washing, it will not wear off, peel or tear.

When making your decision on which option to choose for your personalised t-shirt printing, it’s a good idea to identify who will be wearing the item, how often it will be worn and washed and what you expect from the item. If your Custom T-Shirt Printing team are only going to wear the t-shirt once or twice, then screen or vinyl printing is ideal, but if your employees are going to be wearing the item five days a week, then going for the slightly more expensive embroidery finish may tick all the boxes to meet your needs.

Reinspire is a United Kingdom based t-shirt printing specialist. This well-established company focuses on providing their customers with the highest quality t-shirts and printing and the best possible prices. The company offers everything from t-shirts to polo shirts to hoodies and more. This Cardiff based company offers screen and vinyl print solutions, along with embroidery options, catering to all their customer’s requirements. Reinspire has built up a solid reputation in the t-shirt printing industry for affordability, quality and price. They cater to all customers from one off t-shirts to larger orders for private customers, sports teams, companies and so much more.

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Golfers – Another Way to Improve Your Game

More than 25 million US golfers undergo a weekly health regimen that may surprise you: corrective chiropractic care! Today’s golfers are increasingly recognizing the importance of keeping their spines healthy, not only to better their lives, but to improve their golf game as well. Professional golfer Ted Tryba, who plays on the PGA and Nationwide Tours, travels to various chiropractors around the region to receive special corrective care before and after his tournaments. He does this not only because pain is common among golfers, but also because proper biomechanics, proper posture and spinal structure, and extended range of motion are essential to getting an edge on the competition. Even former World No. 1 golfer David Duval suffers from back pain due to repetitive play and regularly seeks chiropractic care.

According to Dr. Tom LaFountain, Director of Chiropractic Services for the PGA Tour and one of 14 official PGA chiropractors, during the 2007 PGA touring year close to 70% of PGA golfers experienced low back pain, and almost 20% suffered from neck pain. Another 13% suffered with shoulder, forearm, and wrist pain. An amazing 72% of PGA golfers experiencing one of these ailments regularly seek chiropractic care. Other PGA golfers who work with chiropractors include: Jim Furyk, Davis Love III, Scott McCarron, Vijay Singh, and David Toms. Many LPGA golfers also benefit from chiropractic services.

Corrective Chiropractic has developed programs for golfers to assist their overall spinal health and, ultimately, their golf games. Due to abnormal spinal structure, many avid golfers who take lessons from skilled professionals still find that biomechanically their bodies do not let them move properly. A doctor certified in Clinical Biomechanics of Posture (CBP) addresses correct spinal position and helps to reestablish normal structural spinal alignment, thereby removing nerve interference caused by misaligned vertebrae. With better alignment the body can restore its optimal function and range of motion.

Similar to the situation for people who wear braces on their teeth, better biomechanics takes persistence, hard work, dedication, and time. After all, how many people do you know who achieved perfectly straight teeth in 3 weeks? In addition to chiropractic adjustments and traction, chiropractic care can help patients increase the range of motion in their pelvis and trunk, align their posture, do rehabilitation exercises, learn proper stretching protocols, work on abdominal strengthening, and reduce inflammation and swelling in their joints.

Proper nutrition also plays an important role in a golfer’s health. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods, such as broccoli, ginger, lentils, avocados, garlic, soybeans, cabbage, and coconut, gives a golfer an edge on his or her competitors. Many golfers in pain rush to the medicine cabinet in search of painkillers or anti-inflammatory medications that might be alleviated with consistent nutritional choices. Optimal healing can occur with a diet that emphasizes green vegetables, omega-3 fatty acids, ginger, and pineapple plus includes glucosamine and avoids processed foods. Hydration is also important, as healing occurs faster with increased water intake.

Playing golf can result in a variety of injuries that cause neck and back pain; shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain; and hip and knee pain. A common problem is the condition known as “golfer’s elbow.” The medical term for this disorder is medial epicondylitis. By either name the condition results from repetitive use and overuse of the tendons and ligaments of the forearm, which causes pain at the inside of the elbow and often on the pinky finger side of the hand. The pain typically increases while holding or gripping an object. Changing the swing biomechanics as well as introducing various stretches and exercises, soft tissue massage, and adjustment of the joint by a skilled chiropractor have been shown to help this and other golf-related injuries immensely.

Shoulder pain and carpal tunnel-like symptoms also occur frequently among golfers. Treatments that align the wrist, elbow, shoulder, and neck and a prescription of exercises tailored to the individual golfer can help relieve the symptoms as well as the neck and back pain commonly experienced. Electrical stimulation of the sore and spastic muscles has been reported to decrease pain and swelling and enables the golfer to enjoy a greater range of motion.

If you are a golfer, a personalized Corrective Chiropractic protocol can change your game. By following through with proper chiropractic care, your spine benefits, your health benefits, and, likely, so will your score!

Dr. Chad Laurence is one of fewer than 400 doctors in the world to be recognized as a distinguished fellow of Clinical Biomechanics of Posture, which is a corrective system that attempts to reestablish normal structural spinal alignment, thus removing nerve interference caused by misaligned vertebrae (“subluxations”) and restoring optimal body function. Research results published in peer-reviewed scientific and medical journals support Clinical Biomechanics of Posture more than any other chiropractic

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Weighing the Benefits of Press Releases and Pitches

As a business owner, you are constantly thinking about new topics to write about and share with other people online. Even if you have amazing writing skills, it isn’t always easy to come up with ideas. However, there are some effective and important ways to communicate with your online connections and it is time to look at the benefits of both so that you can decide what works best for your business.

Let’s look at the press release first


There are several positive reasons why you would want to choosing a press release, including the fact that a press release has the potential to communicate whatever number of details you wish to supply. Another really good thing about a press release is that it is not time-sensitive. Once you post it online, it will stay there forever. You can also put backlinks in your press release, which can be extremely useful to you and to the other person online. You can use hashtags in your press release, which is a great thing when it comes to the search engines finding you and giving you a good ranking on their pages. Interestingly (and fortunately), if another writer wants to write about you and your business, the person doesn’t have to go any further than your press release. All of the pertinent details are right there. A lot of people believe that press releases should only be released when there is some news to share. In fact, that is not the only way that you can use a press release for your business. You can use it like a newsletter as well. You can also use your press release to offer your online connections a list of tips and tricks that you have found to be effective. Before you actually post your press release, you can promote it and get people excited about the idea that it is coming and that it will give them a great deal of valuable information that they can use to advance their own business. Another wonderful result of a press release is that it can give other people the perception that you are a subject matter expert in your particular niche or industry. That is something that is essential for your professional success. No matter what you do, you must achieve that goal in some manner.


There are many advantages to using a press release. However, just like it is with anything in life (and in business), there is another side to the coin. In other words, there are some disadvantages to using a press release as well. It is very important for you to understand the entire picture so that you can make an informed, intelligent decision. One of the disadvantages of a press release is the fact that it can’t really make a giant splash all by itself. A press release is an extremely common means of communication and because that is the case, business people receive a very large number of them on a regular basis. That means that the pressure is on you to come up with something that stands out and really grabs the recipient’s attention so that they don’t forget you and your business. As is always the case with content, you have exactly three seconds to grab your reader’s attention with the headline. If the headline of your press release doesn’t wow the reader, that person will probably not be interested enough to keep reading. Another thing to remember is that writing a press releases is an art form. You are not born knowing how to write an amazing, compelling press release. It takes time and effort to really learn how to do it well. Another thing to keep in mind is that concept that in this day and age of high-tech everything, the people who are running the show (in many cases) are young and won’t take your press release seriously. The last disadvantage is that a press release gives everyone the same information at the same time. There is no such thing as an exclusive in that situation.

Now, let’s look at the pitch


One of the first advantages of a pitch is that, if it is really written well, the message that comes across to those people who are reading it is that you are representing you and your business clearly and that your readers understand exactly how you can help them. When it comes to the subject of your pitch, because you have so much information at your fingertips, you can really customize your pitch to that person. In fact, you can even go one step further and tailor several pitches using the same story. You will certainly get a lot of mileage out of that. Another good thing is that the recipients of your pitch don’t have any awareness of each other. That makes them feel like they are the only one who is receiving it. That makes them special. In a pitch, you can also dangle incentives to your audience members, which can make things very interesting. You can also control the timing on your pitch so that it is in synergy with whichever events you wish to connect it to. That can really work out well for you.


If you use a pitch, interacting with your target audience afterward can be more difficult than it would be if you issue a press release. Another possible disadvantage is that pitches are much shorter than press releases and you won’t have the luxury of putting in as many details as you wish. When it comes to creating the pitch, it is generally more difficult to write a good one than it is to write a press release. If you do it really well, your pitch will tell your story in a touching way that will compel your audience to pay attention. Once you are finished with your pitch (if you do it right), the audience members will want to interact with you as a next step. One word of caution is that if you don’t do a really solid job of creating your pitch, you may fall flat. That means that you will need to really do your research properly so that the person to whom you are pitching really knows how important he or she is to you.


It is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of press releases and pitches and to understand when to use which one. Only you can decide for your particular business and the more you work on both of them, the better you will become at wowing our audience members. If you feel that supplying a comprehensive amount of details is essential to your target audience, you will choose one way over the other. On the other hand, if you want to create an amazing first impression with a personal touch, you may choose to go the factspress other way. There are those people who believe that press releases are old-fashioned and pitches are more modern. You need to look at your business’ needs and figure out which one will be most advantageous for you and your business.

We are pleased to provide you with the insightful comments contained herein. For a complimentary assessment of your online presence, let’s have coffee.

Carolyn T. Cohn is the Chief Editor of CompuKol Communications. Mrs. Cohn has a wealth of experience in managing people and projects. She has run several editorial departments for various companies. Mrs. Cohn has 25 years of editorial experience and her expertise covers a wide range of media, such as online editing, editing books, journal articles, abstracts, and promotional and educational materials. Throughout her career, Mrs. Cohn has established and maintained strong relationships with professionals from a wide range of companies. The principle that governs her work is that all words need to be edited.

Mrs. Cohn earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo.

Mrs. Cohn is a member of the American Medical Writers Association (AMWA).

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Being Creative In Craft Brewing Is Understanding a Lot About Yeast and Hops

If you want to simply make beer it is done with a short list of ingredients: water, yeast, hops, and malted grain (most likely barley). These are the same ingredients used by the big guys. This short list sounds simple enough. Reality is, making beer is equal parts science and art; those latter 2 are the secret ingredients of making beer. Simply giving a person an easel, brushes and paints does not make that person a Rembrandt. If you want to make a fine beer you need to understand the science behind ingredients and how to put them together.

However, that perfect beer is about balancing flavor, aroma, bitterness, and mouthfeel. In trying to achieve any optimally balanced beer, interpreting, and tweaking a recipe is about understanding this science and art.

Today some are taking their artistry in new directions by experimenting with ingredients that are outside the traditional box. For example, some are using pine, fir, and spruce shoots to add bitterness and some different aromas to beer. But this practice dates to colonial times, so it is not entirely new. My daughter-in-law told me there are brewers experimenting with using grape skins for their tannins to add bitterness to beer.

When it comes to discussing beers, it doesn’t take long for the conversation to come around to hops. In the wine business it is about grapes. And yeast is the mystery ingredient; it is more difficult to understand yeast. Most of us have seen pictures of acres of hops growing or the mesmerizing shape of the hops cone, but we never see yeast because it is a single cell organism.

Hops primarily exist for imparting bitterness. There are 2 primary acids in hops-alpha and beta. The alpha acid gives beer the bitter taste profile. The second acid fills out bitterness. Historically the antimicrobial compounds in hops helped preserve beer. This was an important attribute for sanitary and preservative reasons at that time. It is hard to believe beer has been around since 4,000 BC and recorded history of hops indicate they were used in 700 AD and the English were drinking beer with hops in 1400 AD.

As an aside, yeast has been around for an equally long time it is just that it was not discovered until the 1800’s.

In addition to hops there are a plethora of yeasts to choose from. The sheer number of varieties of hops and yeast strains stagger the imagination, together they offer limitless flavors, aromas, bitterness, and mouthfeel options.

“Americans have been growing hops since early colonial times, just not the number of varieties grown today. The first commercial N. American hop production was a 45-acre garden established in 1648 to supply a brewery in the Massachusetts Bay settlement”, notes Hops Growers of America. If you are interested in more hop facts, consider these:

889 plants or “hills” make up one acre of hops.
In the Pacific Northwest, yields average about 2,000 pounds of dried hop cones per acre on mature hop yards, or a little over two pounds per hill (yields vary depending on variety and location).
Hops are typically sold in 200-pound bales (of course those are serious brewing operations).
A bale will yield between 135 – 800 barrels of beer (31 gallons in a barrel), depending on the recipe.
Source: Hop Growers of America
When a person discovers that perfect beer, that experience will probably be short-lived; personal tastes preferences do change. Like wine consumers, beer taste preferences do change which motivates consumers to explore new offerings. Further, the sheer magnitude of style variations will foster experiments for new beers. Who would have envisioned a Peanut Butter Stout or using pine shoot or grape skins to make beer?

One change in progress is the non-alcoholic beer category. This trend has not worked out well for wine, but we will see about beer. Alcohol does impact flavor and that is a big issue whether it is wine or beer.

As the old expression goes-Nothing is easy and if it were everyone would be doing it. Brewing is no exception, a slight change/misstep in execution or ingredient selection can result in unintended consequences. If there are any doubts, acquaint yourself with the story of the demise of the largest American brewery in the 1960’s-Schlitz-The Beer That Made Milwaukee Famous.

Tragically, after senior management changes, the new management team thought they could save money by using cheaper ingredients and employ short-cuts in production. (Ultimately, they were accused of selling “green” beer due to shortened fermentation times.) The consumer instantly recognized some changes in the product and did not like the changes. It was not long before consumers understood something was wrong with their favorite beer. This incident validates another adage: If it isn’t broken don’t fix it. Unintended consequences.

Deciding what is the best beer is a subjective decision. I did some research a few years ago and found there were 17 different considerations that came into play in deciding what wine was a person’s favorite. Basically, such things as: environment, age, experiences with various wines, influences from other people, visits to wineries, mouthfeel, aromas, etc. formed a person’s preference. Beer is not that much different when it comes to subjective decisions on that ideal beer.

The current trend in beer is the hoppy forward sensory perception of bitterness as well as taste/flavor. For consumer demanding the fresh bitter taste of hops, selecting the right hops varietal is critical. The choice of hops to get that right level of bitterness are many. It is the high acid content in individual species of hop cones that will deliver that precise bitter taste. Then the trick is to choose the hops that will deliver a desired aroma profile.

The numeric value of bitterness is the IBU number. The IBU scale is from 1 to 100. It is the bitterness introduced into beer from the hops that regulates the desired sweetness in the product.

“Just as there are dozens of grape varietals used for winemaking, there are a ton of different kinds of hops available to brewers. And just like with wine grapes, hops of different strains and from different growing regions bring different flavors, aromas, and bittering capabilities,” comments Caitlin at KegWorks 2017.

America and Germany are the mecca of hop development and research. In the US, the center of the hop world is Washington, Idaho, and Oregon.

Hop varieties also have a pedigree and growers thrive on the reputation surrounding the quality of their hops, the better the hop pedigree and a grower’s reputation, the greater the demand. As in most things demand drives the price. It is speculated that some hop varietal cones have sold for a high of $20-25 per pound. The average in 2019 appears to be $5.68/pound. Last year growers in the US produced 113.5 million pounds of hops and that is an increase of nearly 90% over 2012 and a 7.5% increase over 2018.

The impact of hops on the beer making process is really determined by the style. A rough rule of thumb is 200 pounds of hops (1 bale) makes 20 barrels.

Here is a breakdown, by style, of hops (in pounds) used in producing a typical keg of beer (1,984 ounces):

Amber 0.17

Brown Ale 0.52

Imperial IPA 3.80

IPA 1.00

Pale Ale 0.56

Stout 0.30

Source: Hop Growers of America

Lastly, the essential oils in hops dictates the aroma value, along with some support from yeast. These oil esters are unique to each variety of hops. Some oils will produce floral, citrus, or earthiness tones. There is an art form to working with the essential oils to bring out the desired aroma. Too much heat for too long will destroy the aroma esters in hops. Brewer experience seems to be a significant factor in bringing out the character of essential oils.

There are approximately 80 active varieties of hops to choose from and more are being developed constantly. The actual count of hop varieties may be closer to 180. This is like grape varietals in winemaking; there are hundreds of varietals that are planted, and more are being developed by universities and labs all over the world. In 2019, the US was the largest producer of hops followed closely by Germany.

Simply put, hops can be split into three main categories: bittering, aroma, and dual. Bittering hops tend to have a high amount of acid in them and impart that recognizable bitter flavor onto the beer. Aroma hops have less acid but a more pronounced flavor and aroma and are used to make the beer taste and smell a specific way. Most beer recipes call for both kinds of hops. Dual hops tend to have a mid-range to high amount of acid and a good smell and aroma and can be used for both aroma and bittering. If you want to brew a beer with just your homegrown hops, one of these dual hops plant types is a good choice,” says Liz Baessler. Choose your hops wisely.

Moving to the subject of yeast.

Yeast, a single cell organism, is used to turn the various sugars in malted grain/wort into alcohol. The importance of yeast research is illustrated by also looking at the wine industry. As an example, in 2019 a university in Spain claimed to have developed a yeast strain that could impart the same taste and aroma as aging wine in an oak barrel. This points out the flexibilities yeast brings to the table relative to fermenting. Imagine a microscopic cell has this much influence on making alcohol, CO2, the myriad flavor and aroma options and mouthfeel in beer.

“Yeast can also take credit for the classification of the beer styles. Brew masters pick a yeast according to the recipe or the style of beer they want to make. Yeast is identified as either an ale yeast or a lager yeast,” according to Beer Cartel blog.

Yeast is a complex ingredient in beer. There are hundreds of yeast strains used in beer and each one offers its own personality and characteristics. Some are specifically suited to consume select sugars in the wort and some have stronger endurance to perform that task.

Today there are many manufacturers of pure brewer’s yeast strains. It is important to realize yeast also occurs naturally in the environment and wild yeast in not necessarily good in brewing. For this reason, early brewers had real problems controlling consistency of the performance of their yeast. Yeast is added after the wort boils (with the hops) and after the wort has cooled (temps are dictated by style). Yeast is so important that some brewers are very secretive about the yeast variety they use.

Yeast bought for home brewing is often sold by the number of cells in a vial or package. For example, a small bag of a pure yeast strain will contain 100 million cells and that would generally be enough for 5 gallons of a finished beer. Retail cost is about $10.00.

Dr. Linda Bisson has spent much of her life doing research on yeast. Dr. Bisson say there are thousands of yeast strains and many strains are naturally occurring in the wild. Mentioned previously, the big contributor to mouthfeel is the way specific yeasts react with specific sugars in the wort- specifically dextrin sugars.

People have asked if bread or wine yeast can be used in beer fermentation. The short answer is no, at least not practically. However, a more educated answer is from Mr. Denny Conn, “You can use any kind of yeast to ferment a beer, but the problem lies in the results. Wine/champagne yeast ferments different group of sugars. (The subject of sugars is a complex subject when it comes to yeasts consuming the sugars in wort.) Wine yeast does not ferment malt triose, one of the main sugars in beer wort. The result is that you’re left with beer that doesn’t quite taste like beer.”

“Hops tend to get all the glamor and attention these days, I strongly believe that the real stars of the show-what makes beer fascinating, delicious, and perhaps even nutritious, is yeast,” says Joseph Lavoie-Beer Craftr (sic). Lavoie explains that before Louis Pasteur’s work in yeast research in the mid 1800’s, brewers knew they had to use the leftover sediment from the previous brew to make the next batch, they just did not know it was yeast that made beer concoction come to life.

According to “Beer Magazine”, different strains of yeast behave differently, so that makes it possible to divide the world of beer according to the yeast. Sixty or more defined beer styles can all be sorted by their yeast into two broad families: the ale family of yeasts and the lager family-top fermenting (cooler temps) and bottom fermenters (warmer fermenting temps) respectively.

To illustrate just how complex the selection of yeast has become, I went to a large manufacturer of brewer’s yeast and counted their yeast offerings for making a few popular styles. Here is what I found: American Ale-32 varieties; British Ales-45; Belgian Sour Ales-26 and IPA-36.

Here is a sample profile they offer to help in selecting a yeast.


Type: Liquid
Flocculation: Low/Med
Attenuation: 73-77%
Temperature: 60-72°F, 15-22°C
Flavor: Exceptionally clean, crisp flavor characteristics with low fruitiness and mild ester production. A very versatile yeast for styles that desire dominant malt and hop character. This strain makes a wonderful “House” strain. Mild citrus notes develop with cooler 60-66°F (15-19ºC) fermentations. Normally requires filtration for bright beers.
Because wort sugars are ready-made for yeast, one of the complexities of brewing is understanding the myriad types of sugars and their chemical structure. Wort is what gives yeast a foundation to bring beer into its own. The subject of the relationship of sugars and yeast is extraordinarily complex.
Noted earlier, yeast also contributes to beer’s flavors and aromas. It also can aid in making beer clear through the process of flocculation. In flocculation yeast cells form together and settle/drop out leaving beer clearer. Further, yeast can highlight the maltiness and aroma profiles while adding to fruitiness that hops imparts. Yeast will also impact sweetness or dry sensation and mouthfeel in the finish. Mouthfeel is a huge sensory queue in appreciating a fine beer.

Because yeast and hops do similar things relative to flavor and aroma it is important to understand how each variety of hops and yeasts will impact a style. If you really want to fully enjoy the experience in consuming a fine beer it is helpful to at least understand some of the science.

In the 1880’s a scientist isolated a pure strain of yeast that was suitable for lager brewing, as opposed to ales. This is an example why research is always moving ahead in yeast development. Even the miners of the California Gold Rush era recognized the special characteristics of a bread made by a bakery in San Francisco. The Boudin family made a special sourdough bread using a special yeast the family discovered.

Beer is unique unto itself because craft beer can and is being produced for regional and national markets. The beers we enjoy today with new flavors and aromas are due to the creativity in beer making processes and ingredients. New styles have brought beer into new social settings. Think about seeing beer as a center piece at food pairings, even fine dining establishments, and celebratory gatherings.

Mr. Koch of the Boston Beer Company has made a beer that he says will stand up to any champagne. “Champagne taste with a beer budget? Thankfully, these days craftlabs, you don’t have to shell out hundreds of dollars to sip that sweet sparkling wine – in fact, you can have the same champagne taste and mouthfeel in your favorite type of beer,” says Kaitlyn McInnis-Editor, Ask Men.

“Thanks to the rise in craft beer, more and more breweries are experimenting with funkier ingredients and brewing methods, including using champagne yeast in their brews! This out-of-the box brewing results in the same umami-packed taste you love in champagne but for a fraction of the cost,” says McInnis.

Different Beers, Different Strokes for All the Folks!


Mr. Lay started Image of Wine to manufacture and sell high end wine related products and services to corporations as gifts, favors and recognition items that draw heavily on the influence of wine. The focus is on branding and building awareness.

In 2015 Mr. Lay launched high-end wine tour programs to Argentina’ wine country.

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Buy Kid’s Clothing at Wholesale Prices – Make Big Profits in Drop Shipping Them

One area in the drop shipping business where you can be sure of a constant market is in children’s clothing. The kids outgrow their clothes fast and parents are always on the lookout for discount sales in kids’ clothing to keep in step with their children’s growth. Different from the women’ clothes, the children’s clothes do not change much in design, but the sizes of the kids’ clothes change constantly.

In these days where kids normally eat highly nutritious food, their growth could be o fast that sometimes it is hard to estimate what size of clothes they will be wearing next. Wholesalers of children’s clothing therefore make huge profits and so do their drop ship partners too. They develop their own statistics of what volume of children’s clothing to procure wholesale at very cheap prices. Factory overruns of the children’ clothes are a source too of very cheap wholesale children’s clothes.

As a drop shipper in children’ clothing you do not have to worry if you have some excess merchandise this year that you are not able to dispose of online – next year they will be sold as the kids following in growth will be needing them. Even buyers purposely buy excess clothing of a particular size for their kids because they know that the smaller kids will already be big enough to use them a year after. If you and your wholesale partner have some extra money invest it now in bulk buying of children’s clothes – you will be able to get them at much cheaper wholesale prices, and when you dispose of them twelve months after, you can realize huge profits then.

You can perhaps think of carrying food items too in your drop ship venture – a corollary business that will be a profit maker too. Children continuously eat because they are still growing. Sell children snack food to their mom too and surely they will triokids not refuse you especially if you offer them special discounts on the food prices too. You therefore would need another wholesale partner whose line of business is in food, but your trio of drop shipping entrepreneurs will surely be happy with more profits.

Compare SaleHoo with the Top 3 Wholesale Directory. SaleHoo Wholesale [] featured on Oprah and CNN Business!

As seen on CNN, CNBC, Money Today and Various other Business Journals!

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How to Purchase Low Cost Concert Tickets – Save Money

Even though our nation is facing difficult economic times, the attendance at concerts continue to grow. The reason for this is the addition in recent years of all the online ticket purchasing sites. It is becoming more popular to purchase tickets online from one of the many discount online ticket vendors. Tickets can be purchased for concerts for some of the biggest names in show business at reduced concrete-everything rates. There are many great deals out there, but at the same time you must be careful not to get scammed.In this article I will give you some tips how to purchase tickets online safely.

First, you want to go online to some of the best sites for purchasing cheap concert tickets. Two of the best sites are ticketstub, onlineseats and stubhub. You want to check as many sites that you can see who offers the best deals. Some of the sites can offer deals from anywhere between 30 to 50 percent off.

Secondly, the online classifieds are also a great place to look for tickets. eBay and are great sources for finding cheap tickets. If you purchase from eBay you bid only what you want to pay and sometimes if the seller is desperate and it is getting close to the date of the concert they will take less. On Craigslist you can barter and usually the seller will take a little less. Don’t be afraid to deal.

Third, be aggressive, check for drawings, listen for promotions from local radio stations who are offering free tickets. If they want you to call in make the effort to get through to the station. Many other local promotions may be offered in your area ans sign up for anything and everything. You have nothing to lose and everything to gain.

Find: Cheap Concert Ticket []

How to: Buy Concert Tickets []

Bryan Burbank is an expert in the field of Tickets and Finding a Deal

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The Usefulness of Foundation Elevations

Some inspectors, engineers and foundation leveling companies use the elevation readings of the surface of a foundation to “determine” if a foundation has suffered differential movements or if a foundation needs “leveling”. A reading of the elevations of the surface of a foundation does not determine if the foundation has moved differentially. “Movement” is a function of time.

Movement is a change is position over a change in time. The taking of the elevations of the surface of the foundation can only define the configuration of the foundation at the time the readings were taken. The only way anyone can convince that your foundation has moved differentially based on a single set of elevation readings is if that person can convince you that the foundation of the structure was completely “flat” when the foundation was constructed.

No foundation is completely “flat” when it is constructed. If you don’t want to take my word for that just drive through any new subdivision after it rains and note that water stands on different areas of the foundation. That means that the foundation cannot be “flat” or “level”. It is true that flooring companies are supposed to cosmetically “level” the surface of the foundation before installing the floor covering materials but, that just really doesn’t happen.

If you want to determine if your foundation is moving differentially you will never to have the elevations of the foundation surfaces taken on more than one occasion over a period of time. You should wait until the weather conditions change. For example, if the weather has been dry, you should wait until after the ground is wet from several rains. This will give you the best chance for the changes in the elevations of the foundation to occur, if your foundation is moving differentially.

You should also know that the instruments used commonly by most inspectors, engineers and foundation leveling contractors are not all that accurate, that they require calibration fairly often and/or that they require some skill in use. Elevation readings should be taken in areas out of normal walking areas and the location of each reading should be taken in a place that can be fairly easily determined so that the elevation readings are taken at the same spot each time. The experts in measuring elevations are land surveyors. If you really want good elevation readings on the surfaces of your foundation, you should employ a land surveyor to take the elevation readings.

Generally, if the foundation of a structure is in need of leveling, you don’t need a professional to tell you that the foundation needs leveling. You will know it because you are walking up and down hill, your coffee cup won’t stay on the breakfast table, you keep rolling out of bed or the neighborhood kids skate board in your living room. If someone has to go to the extent to use measurements to determine that differences exist in the surface elevations of the foundation and you cannot feel the differences in the elevations as you walk through the house, what difference will “leveling” the foundation make?

Many “professionals” are of the opinion that all cracks in wall covering materials, out of square door frames, out of square windows, etc. are caused by differential foundation movements. In my experience with foundations, which spans over 40 years, only a small percentage of the wall cracks found in structures are caused by differential foundation movements. Most cracks, out of square door and window frames are caused by structural framing problems. But framing problems are harder to find, to understand and to explain to clients than it is to just assume that all problems are caused by differential foundation movements.

The performance of a foundation can only be determined during a real estate inspection or during a single inspection of a foundation by observing the performance of the superstructure and by observing the slopes in the surface of the foundation. If the foundation is not noticeably sloping and there are cracks in the wall covering materials, out of square door frames, out of square window frames, etc. then you should suspect that the problem lies in the framing. If the flooring of the second story sags and the surface of the foundation on the first story is relatively “flat”, you should suspect a defect or defects in the wall and second story floor framing system.

Differential foundation movements, unless extreme, do little actual damage to the framing of a house. After all, how many houses have you seen fall down from differential foundation movements? You should also understand that foundations ObesityFoundation were not designed to be “leveled”. “Leveling” of a foundation should only be performed when other means of controlling actual differential foundation movements fail and the slopes in the surface of the foundation are so severe that living in the house becomes uncomfortable.

Copyright 2009 by Fred Willcox
All rights reserved.

Fred Willcox is a professional inspector (TREC Professional Inspector #160) who practices primarily in the Greater Houston, Texas area. Fred was one of the original inventors of the pressed piling method of leveling foundations. Fred holds two patents in the field of foundation leveling. Fred is a member of the Texas Real Estate Inspectors Advisory Committee and he chairs the standards of practice sub committee and is a member of the education sub committee. Fred chaired the standards of practice sub committee when the standards of practice for real estate inspectors were first written and when the standards of practice were re-written and placed in a new format. Well known as an instructor and speaker, Fred also provides service as an expert witness.

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